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The only existing manuscript of "Beowulf" dates from about 1000 AD. But the epic itself refers, according to most experts, to the end of the 7th or the first third of the 8th century. At that time, the Anglo-Saxons were already experiencing the incipient process of the emergence of feudal ties. However, the poem is characterized by an epic archaization. In addition, she paints reality from a specific point of view: the world of "Beowulf" is the world of kings and warriors, the world of feasts, battles and duels.

The next morning there was general jubilation. In honor of Beowulf, legends are told about the exploits of Sigmund and Heremod. At the royal feast in the evening, Hrothgar presents Beowulf with sumptuous gifts. Bard sings about Finnsburg: contrasting this tragic feud from Denmark's past with actual festivities allows the poet to hint that the Danish royal house will soon fall due to betrayal.

On the same night, Grendel's mother attacks Heorot in revenge for her son and takes away Hrothgar's chief adviser. Beowulf dives into the lake where the monster lives. Beowulf's second battle, this time underwater, is difficult and the monster nearly kills Beowulf. Finally, with the help of a magic sword lying at the bottom of the lake, Beowulf manages to kill Grendel's mother. The warriors standing on the shore think that Beowulf died when he floats to the surface, holding Grendel's head in his hands as a trophy. Denmark is now free of monsters.

When Beowulf announces his feat to the king, he warns the young hero not to fall into the sin of pride. Beowulf leaves the next day. The old king, who fell in love with him as a son, cries. In Gautlandia, Beowulf tells of his exploits to his uncle, King Higelak. He also says that Denmark will soon be invaded by the Headobard tribe, despite the fact that Hrothgar gave his daughter Ingeld in marriage to the king of this tribe. Then Beowulf gives his master all the gifts received from Hrothgar, and in return receives land and wealth.

After the death of Higelak and his son Hardred, Beowulf becomes king. He ruled peacefully for 50 years, until a thief harassed a sleeping dragon guarding the treasures hidden in the cave. Beowulf with a detachment of warriors goes to the dragon's cave and there reflects on the bloody history of the Gout royal house and its feuds with the Swedes. Beowulf announces that he will fight the dragon one-on-one.

Beowulf is scorched by a dragon. All the warriors scatter in terror, except for the young Wiglaf, who comes to the aid of his master through the flames. Beowulf hits the dragon on the head and his sword breaks. The dragon bites Beowulf's throat. Wiglaf pierces the dragon's belly, and Beowulf, already mortally wounded, finishes the dragon.

Beowulf asks Wiglaf to take the treasure out of the cave. The hero rejoices that he ruled well and can die with a clear conscience; regrets that he has no heir. Beowulf gives Wiglaf instructions about his grave and dies. The cowardly warriors return and Wiglaf taunts them.

Wiglaf sends a messenger to the fortress with the news of the death of the king. The messenger's speech to the royal council is an epic prediction of the sad fate of the Gouts at the hands of their enemies now that the leader is dead. Beowulf is burned at the stake, and treasures and ashes are buried in a mound on a promontory by the sea.

The "ideal" warrior-ruler had to come from a good family. But ideally, the hero certainly shone with a wonderful family tree. It had to be beautiful and attractive. His beauty was usually accentuated by clothing, which testifies to the love of gold and precious stones. Armor and harness were under the clothes.The hero needed strength. Otherwise he would not have been able to carry armor that weighed about sixty or eighty kilograms. He usually showed this power, like Hercules, as a child. An example is Beowulf, who came from afar to free the Danes from a monster that sneaked in at night and killed famous knights, enters into a terrible fight with him and throws all his weapons to show the power that allows him to tear off the monster's paw naked hands.The warrior-ruler was expected to constantly take care of his glory. Glory required relentless confirmation, new and new trials. A knight cannot calmly listen to someone else's success. With constant concern for their military prestige, it is clear that a soldier needs courage. Lack of courage is the most serious accusation. Courage is also necessary to fulfill the duty of fidelity. If courage was necessary for a warrior-ruler as a military man, then the generosity that was expected of him and which was considered an essential property of a noble born, served his dependents, and above all those who glorified the exploits of knights in the courts in the hope of good treats and decent occasion gifts before sending on your way. A warrior, whether he was a king or a warrior, is known to have remained unconditionally faithful to his obligations to his peers. The most serious accusation that could be brought against an early medieval warrior and a warrior of a later time.


At the end of my work I would like to summarize all the above. After studying and analyzing the source ("Beowulf"), I came to the conclusion that on the basis of this poem you can get information about the English warriors of this era. However, the song covers only some aspects of the English soldiers. Those qualities (physical and spiritual) which, according to the society of the early Middle Ages, should have had an ideal warrior-ruler. The song mentions, albeit to a lesser extent, the weapons of warriors, battles, banquets, and finally describes in detail the treasures. This song may be of interest to people who are engaged in clarifying and clarifying ancient customs, for example, in "Beowulf" there is a mention of the burial rite, etc. On the basis of the song you can see the "eyes of a contemporary" of the Song, how he was given the world and his perception of the poem.